Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) is one of the major problems in the Australian (and world) swine industries causing economic losses and decreases in the performance and survival of weaned pigs.
The diarrhoea is caused by strains (types) of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) that adhere to receptors on the enterocytes and colonise the surface of the small intestine. The enterotoxins produced enhance the net secretion of water (i.e., into the intestines) to cause diarrhoea (Pluske et al., 2018).
Traditionally antibiotics have been used for the prophylactic treatment of these pathogenic bacteria.
However, rising concerns about antimicrobial resistance (AMR) caused by feeding antibiotics or other compounds such as zinc oxide (ZnO) and the ban of antibiotic-based growth promoters (AGP) and prophylactic antibiotic use in a growing number of countries has compelled the search for alternatives to in-feed antibiotics (Pluske, 2013).
The use of medicinal zinc oxide (ZnO) to prevent diarrhoea post-weaning will be banned in the EU from 2022. (European Medicines Agency 2017).
The issue of AMR is growing worldwide and therefore in the pork industry (Pollock et al., 2020), alternatives to traditional preventative compounds such as ZnO and AGP are urgently needed to maintain pig health and welfare.
Detach® is a non-antibiotic approach to aid in the control of diarrhoeal disease (known as scour), developed using bromelain, an extract from pineapple stems.
Scour in piglets is an expensive, debilitating and in some cases, life-threatening condition. Increasing survivability and providing health benefits to pre-weaning piglets has been at the core of the development of Detach® since the Company was listed in 2014.
Anatara Announcement in 2018
In October 2018, Anatara announced that the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) has registered Detach® for use in piglets in Australia, with the approved label,
“To aid in the control of scour and has positive health benefits in weaned piglets from 3 weeks of age and help increase survivability of scouring pre-weaning piglets”.
Anatara is evaluating commercialisation opportunities for Detach® including options for launch of the APVMA approved product in Australia, regulatory approval of this product in overseas markets, development of this product for species other than piglets and, global or regional licensing of Detach®
Detach® has been shown to reduce PWD and provide similar protection to antimicrobial agents including ZnO (Holyoake and Mynott, 2017) as well as reduce antimicrobial resistance (AMR) (Collins and Bowring, 2017).
However, Detach® requires labour and effort to deliver the compound by drenching. BONIFF is a revised formulation that is applied to dry feed for piglets after weaning, reducing labour input and simplifying the entire process.
Anatara successfully completed a piglet challenge trial which concluded that BONIFF could be considered as a replacement for a non-physiological level of zinc oxide with commercial levels of additives in a semi-moist extruded creep piglet diet.
ANR-pf is Anatara’s proprietary enriched formulation for poultry in water, designed to allow the full delivery of key additives in a quick and flexible dosing method on-farm even when stock illness is a concern.
Anatara successfully completed a poultry challenge trial “Efficacy of ANR-pf on the performance of broilers subject to subclinical and necrotic enteritis challenges”.
Collins A.M. and Bowring B.G. (2017). Reduced antimicrobial resistance in weaner pigs treated with Detach® following natural challenge with F4 Escherichia coli. Animal Production Science 57:2491.
European Medicines Agency
European Medicines Agency (16 March 2017): https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/medicines/veterinary/referrals/zinc-oxide
Holyoake P.K. and Mynott T.L
Holyoake P.K. and Mynott T.L. (2017). A comparative study of the efficacy of Detach® versus zinc oxide to control post weaning diarrhoea in pigs. Animal Production Science 57:2503.
Pluske, J.R. (2013). Feed- and feed additives-related aspects of gut health and development in weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 4:1.
Pluske, J.R., Turpin, D.L. and Kim, J.C.
Pluske, J.R., Turpin, D.L. and Kim, J.C. (2018). Gastrointestinal tract (gut) health in the young pig. Animal Nutrition 4:187-196.
Resistance to change
Pollock, J., Muwonge, A., Hutchings M.R., Mainda, G., Bronsvoort, B.M., Gally, D.L. and Corbishley, A. (2020). Resistance to change: AMR gene dynamics on a commercial pig farm with high antimicrobial usage. Scientific Reports 10:1708.
Evidence-based treatments for gastrointestinal diseases